เมื่อกล่าวถึงคำว่า"มลายู" มักมีการตีความกันหลากหลายความหมาย การตีความของคำว่า"มลายู" สำหรับจังหวัดชายแดนภาคใต้ ประเทศมาเลเซีย สิงคโปร และประเทศบรูไน จะแตกต่างจากการตีความของประเทศอินโดเนเซีย ดังนั้นเมื่อตีความคนละอย่าง จึงเกิดความเข้าใจที่แตกต่างกัน ในประเทศมาเลเซีย สิงคโปร และประเทศบรูไน เมื่อมีการตีความคำว่า "มลายู"ก็จะหมายถึงชาติพันธุ์มลายู จึงในในกลุ่มชาติพันธุ์มลายู ก็ประกอบด้วยชนเผ่าต่างๆ เช่น ชาวมลายู ชาวชวา ชาวบูกิส ชาวบาตัก ชาวมีนังกาเบา ส่วนการตีความของคำว่า"มลายู"ในประเทศอินโดเนเซียนั้น จะหมายถึงชนเผ่า ซึ่งหมายถึงชนเผ่ามลายูที่อาศัยอยู่ในเกาะสุมาตรา หมู่เกาะเรียว เกาะกาลีมันตัน
ในครั้งนี้เราน่าจะมาทำความรู้จักกับความหมายของมลายูในฐานะชนเผ่า ซึ่งมีความหมายที่ค่อนข้างเล็กกว่าความหมายของชาติพันธุ์มลายู โดยขอใช้ข้อมูลจาก wikipedia ซึ่งข้อมูลนี้น่าจะเชื่อถือได้ ด้วยมีการเขียนถึงแหล่งอ้างอิง
Malays (Malay: Melayu Jawi: ملايو) are an ethnic group of Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra, southernmost parts of Thailand, south coast Burma, island of Singapore, coastal Borneo including Brunei, West Kalimantan, and coastal Sarawak and Sabah, and the smaller islands which lie between these locations - that collectively known as the Alam Melayu. These locations today are part of the modern nations of Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Burma and Southern Thailand.
There is considerable genetic, linguistic, cultural, and social diversity among the many Malay subgroups, mainly due to hundreds of years of immigration and assimilation of various regional ethnicity and tribes within Maritime Southeast Asia. Historically, the Malays population is descended primarily from the earlier Malayic-speaking tribes that settled in the region, who founded several ancient maritime trading states and kingdoms, notably Brunei, Old Kedah, Langkasuka, Gangga Negara, Old Kelantan, Negara Sri Dharmaraja, Malayu and Srivijaya, and the later Cham and Mon-Khmer settlers.
The advent of the Melaka Sultanate in the 15th century triggered a major revolution in Malay history, the significance of which lies in its far-reaching political and cultural legacy. Common definitive markers of a Malay identity - the religion of Islam, the Malay language and traditions - are thought to have been promulgated during this era, resulting in the ethnogenesis of the Malay as a major ethnoreligious group in the region.
In literature, architecture, culinary traditions, traditional dress, performing arts, martial arts, and royal court traditions, Melaka set a standard that later Malay sultanates emulated. The golden age of the Malay sultanates in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo saw many of their inhabitants, particularly from various tribal communities like the Batak, Dayak, Orang Asli and the Orang laut become subject to Islamisation and Malayisation.
Today, some Malays have recent forbears from other parts of Maritime Southeast Asia, termed as anak dagang ("traders") and who predominantly consist of Javanese, Bugis, Minangkabau and Acehnese peoples, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other countries.
Throughout their history, the Malays have been known as a coastal-trading community with fluid cultural characteristics. They absorbed numerous cultural features of other local ethnic groups, such as those of Minang, Acehnese, and to some degree Javanese culture; however Malay culture differs by being more overtly Islamic than the multi-religious Javanese culture.
Ethnic Malays are also the major source of the ethnocultural development of the related Betawi, Banjar and Peranakan cultures, as well as the development of Malay trade and creole languages like Ambonese Malay, Baba Malay, Betawi Malay and Manado Malay.
The ethnonym "Melayu" to refer to a distinct ethnic group is believed to have been popularized during the consolidation of the Melaka Sultanate as a regional power in the 15th century. It was used to describe the cultural preferences of the Melakans as against foreigners from the same region, notably the Javanese and Thais.
Prior to the 15th century, the term and its other spelling variants can be found in various foreign and local sources referring to either historical kingdoms or geographical parts of Malay archipelago.
Malayadvipa - appeared in chapter 48, Vayu Purana. It literally means "mountain-insular continent" and described as one of the provinces in the mythical eastern archipelago that was full of gold and silver. Some scholars equate the term with Sumatra, but several Indian scholars believe the term should refer to the more mountainous Malay peninsula, while Sumatra is more correctly associated with Suvarnadvipa.
Maleu-kolon - appeared in Ptolemy's work, Geographia. It is believed to have originated from the Sanskrit term malayakolam or malaikurram, referring to a geographical part of Malay Peninsular.
Mo-Lo-Yu - mentioned by Yijing, a Tang Dynasty Chinese Buddhist monk who visited the Malay Archipelago between 688–695. The Melayu Kingdom existed in Jambi between the 4th and 13th century. The Mo-Lo-Yu kingdom was located in a distance of 15 day sail from Bogha (Palembang), the capital of Sribhoga (Srivijaya). It took a 15 day sail as well to reach Ka-Cha (Kedah) from Mo-lo-yu; therefore, it can be reasoned that Mo-Lo-Yu would lie halfway between the two places.
A popular theory relates Mo-Lo-Yu with the Jambi in Sumatra, however the geographical location of Jambi contradict with Yi Jing's description of a "half way sail between Ka-Cha (Kedah) and Bogha (Palembang)". In the later Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368) and Ming Dynasty (1368–1644), the word Ma-La-Yu was mentioned often in Chinese historical texts - with changes in spelling due to the time span between the dynasties - to refer to a nation near the southern sea. Among the terms used was "Bok-la-yu", "Mok-la-yu" (木剌由), Ma-li-yu-er (麻里予兒), Oo-lai-yu (巫来由) - traced from the written source of monk Xuan Zang), and Wu-lai-yu (無来由).
Malaiur - inscribed on the south wall of the Brihadeeswarar Temple. It was described as a kingdom that had "a strong mountain for its rampart" in Malay peninsula, that fell to the Chola invaders during Rajendra Chola I's campaign in 11th century.
Bhūmi Mālayu - (literally "Land of Malayu"), a translation from Padang Roco Inscription dated 1286 CE by Slamet Muljana. The term is associated with Dharmasraya kingdom.
Ma-li-yu-er - mentioned in the chronicle of Yuan Dynasty, referring to a nation of Malay peninsula that faced the southward expansion of Sukhothai Kingdom, during the reign of Ram Khamhaeng. The chronicle stated: "..Animosity occurred between Siam and Ma-li-yu-er with both killing each other...". In response to the Sukhothai's action, a Chinese envoy arrived at the Ram Khamhaeng's court in 1295 bearing an imperial order: "Keep your promise and do no evil to Ma-li-yu-er".
Malauir - mentioned in Marco Polo's account as a kingdom located in the Malay peninsula, possibly similar to the one mentioned in Yuan chronicle.
Malayapura - (literally "city of Malaya" or "kingdom of Malaya"), inscribed on the Amoghapasa inscription dated 1347 CE. The term was used by Adityawarman to refer to Dharmasraya.
Sungai Melayu - (literally "Melayu river"), mentioned in the Malay annals in referring to a river in Sumatra: "...Here now is the story of a city called Palembang in the land of Andelas. It was ruled by Demang Lebar Daun, a descendant of Raja Shulan, and its river was the Muara Tatang. In the upper reaches of the Muara Tatang was a river called Melayu, and on that river was a hill called Si-Guntang Mahameru...".
Other logical explanations of the name origin has been verified in other languages, such as the Tamil word malaiyur, used to refer the mountainous region where the civilization of Kadaram was founded in Kedah (today), or the Javanese word mlayu (to run) derived from mlaku (to walk or to travel), or the Malay term melaju (to steadily accelerate), to refer the high mobility and migratory nature of its people,
however these suggestions remain as popular local beliefs without corroborating evidence. During the European colonization of the area, the word "Malay" was adopted into English via the Dutch word "Malayo", itself derived from the Portuguese malaio, which originates from – and has an uncannily similar pronunciation to – the Malay word "Melayu".
Further information: History of Austronesian peoples, Homeland of Austronesian languages
Also known as Melayu asli (aboriginal Malays) or Melayu purba (ancient Malays), the Proto-Malays are of Austronesian origin and thought to have migrated to the Malay archipelago in a long series of migrations between 2500 and 1500 BC. The Encyclopedia of Malaysia: Early History, has pointed out a total of three theories of the origin of Malays:
The Yunnan theory, Mekong river migration (published in 1889) - The theory of Proto-Malays originating from Yunnan is supported by R.H Geldern, J.H.C Kern, J.R Foster, J.R Logen, Slamet Muljana and Asmah Haji Omar. Other evidences that support this theory include: stone tools found in Malay Archipelago are analogous to Central Asian tools, similarity of Malay customs and Assam customs.
The New Guinea theory (published in 1965) - The proto-Malays are believed to be seafarers knowledgeable in oceanography and possessing agricultural skills. They moved around from island to island in great distances between modern day New Zealand and Madagascar, and they served as navigation guides, crew and labour to Indian, Arab, Persian and Chinese traders for nearly 2000 years. Over the years they settled at various places and adopted various cultures and religions.
The Taiwan theory (published in 1997) - The migration of a certain group of Southern Chinese occurred 6,000 years ago, some moved to Taiwan (today's Taiwanese aborigines are their descendents), then to the Philippines and later to Borneo (roughly 4,500 years ago) (today's Dayak and other groups). These ancient people also split with some heading to Sulawesi and others progressing into Java, and Sumatra, all of which now speaks languages that belongs to the Austronesian Language family.
The final migration was to the Malay Peninsula roughly 3,000 years ago. A sub-group from Borneo moved to Champa in modern-day Central and South Vietnam roughly 4,500 years ago. There are also traces of the Dong Son and Hoabinhian migration from Vietnam and Cambodia. All these groups share DNA and linguistic origins traceable to the island that is today Taiwan, and the ancestors of these ancient people are traceable to southern China.
The earlier Proto-Malay groups were later pushed inland by so-called "Deutero-Malay" settlers in the second wave of migration around 300 BC. The Deutero-Malays are Iron Age people descended partly from the subsequent Austronesian peoples who came equipped with more advanced farming techniques and new knowledge of metals.
They are kindred but more Mongolized and greatly distinguished from the Proto-Malays which have shorter stature, darker skin, slightly higher frequency of wavy hair, much higher percentage of dolichocephaly and a markedly lower frequency of the epicanthic fold. The Deutero-Malay settlers were not nomadic compared to their predecessors, instead they settled and established kampungs which serve as the main units in the society. These kampungs were normally situated on the riverbanks or coastal areas and generally self-sufficient in food and other necessities. By the end of the last century BC, these kampungs beginning to engage in some trade with the outside world.
The Deutero-Malays are considered the direct ancestors of present-day Malay people. Their series of migration had indirectly forced some groups of Proto-Malays and aboriginal people to retreat into the hill areas of the interior further upriver, while many of the historical tribes were also completely assimilated under the influence of Malayisation, contributing to the genetic pool of the modern ethnic Malays. Notable Proto-Malays of today are Moken, Jakun, Orang Kuala, Temuan and Orang Kanaq.
Expansion from Sundaland model
A more recent theory holds that rather than being populated by expansion from the mainland, the Ice Age populations of the Malay peninsula, neighboring Indonesian archipelago, and the then-exposed continental shelf (Sundaland) instead developed locally from the first human settlers and expanded to the mainland. Proponents of this theory hold that this expansion gives a far more parsimonious explanation of the linguistic, archaeological, and anthropological evidence than earlier models, particularly the Taiwan model.
This theory also draws support from recent genetic evidence by Human Genome Organisation suggesting that the primary peopling of Asia occurred in a single migration through Southeast Asia; this route is held to be the modern Malay area and that the diversity in the area developed mainly in-place without requiring major migrations from the mainland. The expansion itself may have been driven by rising sea levels at the end of the Ice Age.
Proponent Stephen Oppenheimer has further theorized that the expansion of peoples occurred in three rapid surges due to rising sea levels at the end of the Ice Age, and that this diaspora spread the peoples and their associated cultures, myths, and technologies not just to mainland Southeast Asia, but as far as India, the Near East, and the Mediterranean. Reviewers have found his proposals for the original settlement and dispersal worthy of further study, but have been skeptical of his more diffusionist claims.
1. Economic Planning Unit (Malaysia) 2010
2. CIA World Factbook 2012
3. Badan Pusat Statistika Indonesia 2010
4. Figure obtained based on the percentage of Malays in 2000 census and the total Indonesian population in 2010 census
5. CIA World Factbook 2012
6. World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples 2005
7. CIA World Factbook 2012
8. Milner 2010, pp. 24, 33
9. Barnard 2004, p. 7&60
10. Melayu Online 2005
11. Milner 2010, p. 200&232
12. Milner 2010, p. 10 & 185
13. Milner 2010, p. 131
14. Barnard 2004, pp. 7, 32, 33 & 43
15. Barnard 2004, p. 4
16. Deka 2007, p. 57
17. Pande 2005, p. 266
18. Gopal 2000, p. 139
19. Ahir 1995, p. 612
20. Mukerjee 1984, p. 212
21. Sarkar 1970, p. 8
22. Gerini 1974, p. 101
23. "Malay (etymology)". Malaysia Factbook. Malaysia Factbook. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
24. I Ching 2005, p. xl-xli
25. Muljana 1981, p. 223
26. Guoxue 2003
27. Hall 1981, p. 190
28. Cordier 2009, p. 105
29. Wright 2004, pp. 364–365
30. Ryan 1976, pp. 4–5
31. Barnard 2004
32. Collins 2003, p. 26
33. Murdock 1969, p. 278
34. Jamil Abu Bakar 2002, p. 39
35. TED 1999
36. COAC 2006
37. Oppenheimer, Stephen (2006). "The 'Austronesian' Story and Farming-language Dispersals: Caveats on the Timing and Independence in Proxy Lines of Evidence from the Indo-European Model". In Bacas, Elizabeth A.; Glover, Ian C.; Pigott, Vincent C. Uncovering Southeast Asia's Past. Singapore: NUS Press. pp. 65–73. ISBN 9971-69-351-8.
38. HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Ikhlak Ahmed, et al. (December 2009). "Mapping Human Genetic Diversity in Asia". Science 326 (5959): 1541–5. doi:10.1126/science.1177074. PMID 20007900.
39. Pedro Soares, P, Jean Alain Trejaut, et al. (June 2008). "Climate Change and Postglacial Human Dispersals in Southeast Asia". Molecular Biology and Evolution 25 (6): 1209–18. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn068. PMID 18359946.
40. Geneticist clarifies role of Proto-Malays in human origin, Yahoo! News, Jan 25, 2012
41. Terrell, John Edward (August–October 1999). "Think Globally, Act Locally". Current Anthropology 40 (4): 559–560.
42. Baer v, A. S. (Fall 1999). "Eden in the East". Asian